• Discrimination
    The treatment of a person or particular group of people differently, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated; prejudice against people and a refusal to give them their rights. (Cambridge Dictionaries)

  • Identity
    Conscious and unconscious assignment of oneself with big and small groups basing on some criteria (Pavlov, 2015)

  • Media representations
    Central signifying practices for producing shared meaning created by media (Hall, 1997)

  • Stigma
    A strong lack of respect for a person or a group of people or a bad opinion of them because they have done something society does not approve of (Cambridge Dictionaries)


Further reading

  • Adichie C.N. The danger of a single story. Ted Talk recorded at TEDGlobal, July 2009. URL: https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story?language=en
  • Berger, P. L. & Luckmann T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
  • Bleich, E., Bloemraad I., and de Graauw E. (2015). Migrants, Minorities and the Media: Information, Representations and Participation in the Public Sphere. Introduction to the special issue on "Media, Migrants and Minorities." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(6): 857-873.
  • Fürsich, E. (2010). Media and the Representation of Others. International Social Science Journal, 61: 113–130. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2451.2010.01751.x
  • Georgiou, M. (2012). Introduction: Gender, migration and the media. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(5): 791–799.
  • Smoliarova A.S. (2014). Creative and cognitive bias in implementation of the principle of objectivity in journalism. Journalistic Yearbook 3: 27-33 (in Russian).
  • Trebbe, J. & Schoenhagen, P. (2011). Ethnic Minorities in the Mass Media: How Migrants Perceive Their Representation in Swiss Public Television. Int. Migration & Integration, 12 (4): 411-428. doi:10.1007/s12134-011-0175-7

Anna Smolyarova, Associate Professor, School of Journalism and Mass Communications St. Petersburg State University (Russia)

An online manual on intercultural understanding, ethics and human rights to be used by teachers and students in journalism education. Read more.

Email : post@journalism-edu.org

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